I used the this website 3dp.rocks/lithophane to create STL files from the images I upload. The important settings are the overall thickness and minimum thickness which I set to 1mm and 0.1mm, respectively. Depending on the transparency of the filament used and the strength of the light used to illuminate the lithophane, you may want to adjust these values. The other setting to change is the Vectors per Pixel which will control the resolution of the STL file. I set this to the maximum value of 5 to preserve the most detail from the image.
Once I had the STL, I sliced it at 0.052mm layer height. By printing with thinner layers, there is a smoother transition between layers, creating better lithophanes.
I was surprised at how good these turned out. They recreate the source images very well and preserved much more detail than I expected. My camera really doesn’t do them justice. They look much better in person.
Here is a less creepy example I created using a photo of my friend, Fred.
My plan with these is to create some picture frames with leds behind the lithophanes to light them up.